While the ratio of cache misses to branch misses on most programs we tested was less than one (See figure 2), exploiting the Spectre vulnerability raised this ratio significantly to more than three (See figure 1).
Meltdown, (also known as Variant 3: rogue data cache load (CVE-2017-5754)), exploits a design flaw in Intel CPUs in a mechanism embedded in the CPU known as out-of-order execution.
In variant 1 (see https://googleprojectzero.il/2018/01/reading-privileged-memory-with-side.html), Spectre exploits the branch predictor mechanism in order to execute an out-of-bounds read.
The stages required for the exploitation of this variant are as follows: While Spectre exploits a different hardware mechanism to induce speculative code execution, the side effects and the methodology used to exfiltrate the data behave in a similar manner (use of cache side-channel to disclose the secret) and leave measurable side-effects.
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